First Chapter Lesson-8: Bioinformatics and Genetic Engineering

At the end of this lesson-

  • 1. You will be able to explain Bioinformatics.
  • 2. You will be able to explain Genetic Engineering.


Bioinformatics: Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data. As an interdisciplinary field of science, bioinformatics combines computer science, statistics, mathematics, and engineering to analyze and interpret biological data.

The biological data used in Bioinformatics are-

  • DNA
  • Gene
  • Amino Acid
  • Nucleic Acid

There are three steps of processing in Bioinformatics Tools:

  • DNA sequence determines protein sequence
  • Protein sequence determines protein structure
  • Protein structure determines protein function

Research area of Bioinformatics: 

  • Sequence alignment
  • DNA Analysis
  • Gene Finding
  • Drug Design
  • Drug Invention
  • Protein Structure

Uses of Bioinformatics:

  • Microbial Genome
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Personalized Medicine
  • Preventive Medicine
  • Gene Therapy
  • Comparative studies
  • Climate Change studies
  • Biotechnology
  • Drug Development
  • Veterinary Science
  • Agriculture

Software used in Bioinformatics:

  • Bioconductor
  • BioPerl
  • Biopython
  • BioJava
  • BioRuby
  • Biclipse
  • Taverna Workbench


Genetic Engineering: It is a technology used to change the genetic makeup of cells to produce improved or novel organisms.New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods or by artificially synthesizing the DNA. A construct is usually created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism. As well as inserting genes, the process can also be used to remove, or “knock out”, genes. The new DNA can be inserted randomly, or targeted to a specific part of the genome. Genetic engineering is also called genetic modification/manipulation-GM.

Uses of Genetic Engineering: 

  • To produce insulin
  • To produce human growth hormone
  • To produce vaccines
  • To produce genetically modified food
  • To produce genetically modified livestock
  • important tool for natural scientists


Lesson Evaluation-

Knowledge Based Questions:

a. What is bioinformatics?

a. What is genetic engineering?

Comprehension Based Questions:

Creative Questions:

Multiple Choice Questions:


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