First Chapter Lesson-7: Biometrics.

At the end of this lesson-

  • 1. You will be able to explain Biometrics.
  • 2. You will be able to describe the elements for implementing biometrics system.
  • 3. You will be able to explain biometrics mechanism. 
  • 4. You will be able to explain the structural and behavioral characteristics of human which are used in biometrics system.
  • 5. You will be able to describe application areas of biometrics technology. 


Biometrics: Bio means ‘Life’ and Metric means ‘measure’. Biometrics technology measures and analyses biological data. Biometrics is such a technology that is used to identify individuals uniquely based on structural and behavioral characteristics.

Biological data used in biometrics are two types:


  • Face Recognition
  • Finger Print
  • Hand Geometry
  • Iris & Retina
  • DNA


  • Voice Recognition
  • Signature Verification
  • Typing Keystroke


Elements for establishing a Biometric system:

  • 1.Computer
  • 2.Internet Connection
  • 3.Webcam
  • 4.Scanner
  • 5.Biosensor


Biometrics Mechanism: Firstly, In this system, biological data is stored in computer database. Secondly, biometrics device takes biological data as input and converts biological data into digital code and than compare with stored code. If code is matched, It can identify individuals.

Face Recognition: A face recognition system is a computer application capable of identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the ways to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a face database.


  • Easy to use.
  • Accuracy is good.


  • Less lighting hampers the system.
  • Use of makeup and ornaments hampers the system.


  • It is typically used in security system.

Finger Print: Finger print is used to verify individuals. Finger print reader uses a light-sensitive microchip to produce a digital image. The computer analyzes the image automatically, selecting just the fingerprint, and then uses sophisticated pattern-matching software to match.

Finger print reader is a biometric device that take an image as input and compare  with the image stored in database  before.


  • Cost is comparatively low.
  • Take less time to identify.
  • Accuracy almost 100 percent.


  • It doesn’t work if there is protector with finger.
  • It’s not suitable for baby.


  • Used as user name and password for a computer system and website.
  • Access control
  • In Banking Payment system.
  • To identify DNA

Hand Geometry: Hand geometry is a biometric that identifies individuals by the shape of their hands. Hand geometry readers measure a user’s hand along many dimensions and compare those measurements to measurements stored in a file.


  • Easy to use.
  • Need less memory.


  • Comparatively device’s price high.
  • Less accuracy than Finger print.


  • Airport in/out control.
  • To record attendance of the employees of a company.

Eye Iris and Retina: Iris recognition is an automated method of biometric identification that uses mathematical pattern-recognition techniques on video images of one or both of the  irises of an individual’s eyes, whose complex patterns are unique, stable, and can be seen from some distance.

Retinal scanning is a different, ocular-based biometric technology that uses the unique patterns on a person’s retina blood vessels.


  • Take less time to identify.
  • Accuracy of eye Iris and retina is better than finger print.
  • It’s high secured system.


  • It’s expensive.
  • Need lot of memory.
  • Need to remove eye glass.


  • This system offers to go foreign country without passport.
  • Used in government company, military and different financial company for identifying purpose.

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Biometrics could be the most exact form of identifying any given individual. Every human being has its own individual map for every cell made, and this map, or ‘blueprint’ as it more often is called, can be found in every body cell. Because DNA is the structure that defines who we are physically and intellectually, unless an individual is an identical twin, it is not likely that any other person will have the same exact set of genes.

DNA can be collected from any number of sources: blood, hair, finger nails, mouth swabs, blood stains, saliva, straws, and any number of other sources that has been attached to the body at some time.

DNA matching has become a popular use in criminal trials, especially in proving rape cases.

The main problems surrounding DNA biometrics is that it is not a quick process to identify someone by their DNA. The process is also a very costly one.

DNA Biometrics is not a fool proof method of identification. If forensic scientists to not conduct a DNA test properly, a person’s identification code can be skewed.

Another problem is matching prior DNA samples to new samples; this is a bigger problem in DNA fingerprinting.

Signature Verification: Signature verification is a technique used by banks, intelligence agencies and high-profile institutions to validate the identity of an individual. Signature verification is often used to compare signatures in bank offices and other branch capture. An image of a signature or a direct signature is fed into the signature verification software and compared to the signature image on file.

Voice Recognition: Voice and speech recognition are two separate biometric modalities that, because they are dependent on the human voice, see a considerable amount of synergy.

Both are contactless, software based technologies, and as such are counted among the most convenient biometrics in regular use.

Voice recognition, also commonly referred to a voiceprint, is the identification and authentication arm of the vocal modalities.

By measuring the sounds a user makes while speaking, voice recognition software can measure the unique biological factors that, combined, produce her voice.

Voiceprints can be measured passively as a user speaks naturally in conversation, or actively, if she is made to speak a passphrase.

Voice recognition is strengthening other biometric login solutions. The USAA banking app, for example, uses facial recognition and voice recognition to provide easy and secure multi-factor biometric security, the voice component adding an extra level of liveness detection to the process.


Uses of Biometrics System:

  • Access Control
  • Recording attendance
  • Passport purpose
  • Driving License
  • Secured payment system
  • Different computer  system secured.


Advantages of Biometrics System: 

  • No more forgotten or stolen passwords.
  • Positive and accurate Identification
  • Highest level of security
  • Offers mobility
  • Impossible to forge
  • Serves as a Key that cannot be transferred.
  • Safe & user friendly


Lesson Evaluation-

Knowledge Based Questions:

a. What is biometrics?

Comprehension Based Questions:

  • a. Explain the technology used for identifying an individual.
  • b. Bio-metrics is a behavior’s properties dependent technology- Explain.
  • c. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using biometrics technology?
  • d. Using biometrics system is convenient for office security- Explain.

Creative Questions:

Multiple Choice Questions:


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