First Chapter Lesson-6: Cryosurgery, Space Exploration and Defense.

At the end of this lesson-

  • 1. You will be able to explain Cryosurgery.
  • 2. You will be able to describe the advantages of cryosurgery.
  • 3. You will be able to describe the application of ICT in space exploration.
  • 4. You will be able to describe the application of ICT in defense.



Cryosurgery: The Greek word cryo means”ice cold“ and Surgery means “hand work”. Cryosurgery is a type of surgery that involves the use of extreme cold to destroy abnormal tissues, such as tumors. Cryosurgery is also called cryotherapy.

The surgery most often use following gases of-

  • Liquid nitrogen
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Argon
  • Di-methyl ether – propane etc


The way how a Cryosurgery is performed:

The doctor will place liquid nitrogen on your skin using a cotton swab or spray. A numbing medicine may be used to prevent any pain or discomfort. In internal area, surgeon will use a scope, which is a flexible tube that can fit into various openings in body, such as the urethra, rectum, or a surgical incision. The liquid nitrogen is fed to the area under treatment and applied to the targeted cells. The cells freeze, die, and then will be slowly absorbed by your body. Doctor will use imaging equipment, such as an ultrasound, as a guide for carrying out the procedure.


Application of Cryosurgery:

1. Cryosurgery is used to destroy abnormal tissues in the body in most cases of cancer.

2. Several internal disorders are also treated with cryosurgery, including-liver cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, oral cancers, cervical disorders etc.


Advantages of Cryosurgery:

1. It is less invasive than surgery, involving only a small incision or insertion of the cryoprobe through the skin.

2. Consequently, pain, bleeding, and other complications of surgery are minimized.

3. Cryosurgery is less expensive than other treatments and requires shorter recovery time and a shorter hospital stay, or no hospital stay at all.

4. Physicians can focus cryosurgical treatment on a limited area, they can avoid the destruction of nearby healthy tissue.


Space Exploration: Space exploration is the ongoing discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of continuously evolving and growing space technology. The physical exploration of space is conducted both by unmanned robotic space probes and human spaceflight. The first successful orbital launch was of the Soviet unmanned Sputnik-1 mission on 4 October 1957. The first successful human spaceflight was Vostok-1 carrying 27-year-old Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on 12 April 1961.

Aims and Objectives of Space Exploration:

  • To identify the features and prepare a list of the organic carbon compounds.
  • To identify the characteristics that can represent the impact of organic process.
  • To explore the minerals and the isotopic and chemical elements of the planet.
  • To explain the formation and the change of soil and rock.
  • To evaluate the process of the atmospheric evolution.
  • To divide and identify the present state of the water circle and the carbon-di-oxide circle.


Lesson Evaluation-

Knowledge Based Questions:

  • a. What is cryosurgery?
  • a. What is cryotherapy?
  • a. What is space exploration?

Comprehension Based Questions:

  • b. “It is possible to do operation without bleeding in cryosurgery”–Explain.
  • b. “It is possible to do operation without bleeding”– Explain.
  • b. Explain the treatment method in low temperature.
  • b. “It is possible to give treatment in cooling process”- Explain.

Creative Questions:

Multiple Choice Questions:


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