Sixth Chapter Lesson-1: Concept of Database.

At the end of this lesson-

  • 1. You will be able to explain data and information.
  • 2. You will be able to distinguish data over information.
  • 3. You will be able to explain data hierarchy.
  • 4. You will be able to explain the advantages and disadvantages of database.
  • 5. You will be able to describe the application areas of database.


Data:  Data is raw, unorganized facts that need to be processed. For getting desired output in a processing data is used as input. Data can be defined as a representation of facts and it is the smallest part of information. Data is represented with the help of characters such as alphabets (A-Z, a-z), digits(0-9) or special characters (+,-,/,*,<,>,= ).

Classification of data:

Information: When data is processed, organized, structured or presented in a given context so as to make it useful, it is called information. Information is the processed data on which decisions and actions are taken.

Examples of data and information: The marks of every subject of a student is called data. On the other hand, the report or result of a student by calculating the marks of all subjects is called information.


Difference between data and information:

For getting desired output in a processing data is used as input. Information is the processed data on which decisions and actions are taken.
Data is a single concept.Information is a collective concept.
Data doesn’t give a complete idea about an object.Information  gives a complete idea about an object.
Data cannot be used directly.Human being use information directly according to their needs.
There are some classifications of data.There is no such classification of information.

A database is an organized collection of related data, stored and accessed electronically. A database is used by an organization as a method of storing, managing and retrieving information. Modern databases are managed using a database management system (DBMS). It may have single or related multiple tables in a database.

Data Hierarchy: Data hierarchy is a systematic organization of data mainly in a hierarchical form. Data organization basically involves bit, byte, field, record, file, and database.


Advantages of database:

  • 1. Reduced data redundancy.
  • 2. Reduced updating errors and increased consistency.
  • 3. Greater data integrity and independence from applications programs.
  • 4. Improved data access to users through use of host and query languages.
  • 5. Improved data security.
  • 6. Reduced data entry, storage, and retrieval costs.
  • 7. Facilitated development of new applications program.

Disadvantages of database:

  • 1. Database systems are complex, difficult, and time-consuming to design.
  • 2. Substantial hardware and software start-up costs.
  • 3. Damage to database affects virtually all applications programs.
  • 4. Extensive conversion costs in moving form a file-based system to a database system.
  • 5. Initial training required for all programmers and users.


Application areas of database:

  • 1. Banking
  • 2. Airlines
  • 3. Library
  • 4. Educational Institution
  • 5. Credit Card
  • 6. Telecommunication
  • 7. Production and distribution
  • 8. Human Resource (HR)
  • 9. Automated Teller Machine (ATM)
  • 10. Stock/Share Market


Lesson Evaluation-

Knowledge Based Questions:

  • a. What is data?
  • a. What is information?
  • a. What is database?
  • a. What is data hierarchy?

Comprehension Based Questions:

Creative Questions:

Multiple Choice Questions:


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